Plate Programme Details Wednesday, November 8th 2017

Welcome & Keynote Kirsi Niinimaki
Fast or slow? Fashion lifecycles in a circular economy context

Prior to the start of the conference, we are hosting a Ph.D. session at TU Delft. The session is targeted at students doing a Ph.D. related to the Circular Economy. It is an opportunity to present work and discuss the diverse aspects of the Circular Economy. There is no cost for attending this event and it is possible for Ph.D. students to take part in the PhD-session without registering for the PLATE conference. PhD students who (also) want to attend the PLATE conference need to register separately. Please alert PhD students to this opportunity and let us know your interest by registering here

Kirsi Niinimäki is Associate Professor in Fashion research in Aalto University. Her research focuses on holistic understanding of sustainable fashion and textile fields and connections between design, manufacturing, business models and consumption.

In Aalto University Kirsi runs the Fashion/Textile Futures research group. The research group is involved in several significant research projects, which integrate closed loop, bioeconomy and circular economy approaches in fashion and textile systems. Kirsi is widely published in top scientific journals. Moreover she has also been a visiting researcher in TU Delft and TU Eindhoven in the Netherlands, Oklahoma State University in the USA and in EWHA University in South-Korea.

Session 1.1  Design for product longevity
Chair: Sonja van Dam

Design framework for emotionally durable products and services 
Haines-Gadd M.(a), Chapman J.(a), Lloyd P. (a), Mason J. (b) and Aliakseyeu D.(b) [a) University of Brighton; b) Philips Lighting]

The lighting industry is currently undergoing a systems shift; a bulb, once a consumable, is now a long-life object. However, is this how these products are regarded by consumers—as durable, potentially long-term companions within the home? Or insignificant items easily discarded, without thought? Moreover, with developments within lighting technology these products are able to provide more advanced, enhanced illumination experiences, yet this in turn has resulted in a more technologically complex object, a factor that producers and consumers must be mindful of when considering the lifespan of a product. Emotion and meaning-driven sustainability research offer a vehicle in which to explore these issues within design and the product development process. This paper presents an ‘Emotionally Durable Design Framework’ developed over the past 18 months in partnership with Philips Lighting. It defines and reveals which strategies are the most crucial when looking to extend both the emotional and physical lifetime of a given product. Our analysis relates nine themes to 38 specific strategies for Emotional Durability, and we conclude by showcasing three lighting concepts, developed using the framework which were exhibited at the University of Brighton and at Philips Lighting Headquarters in Eindhoven.

Uniquely for you: The individualised avenue for longer product
Armellini J.(a) and Ford P.(a)[a) De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom]

Object customisation has historically been a regular practice as a form of self, or group-identification. A product we can identify ourselves with, is one that we keep for longer, tend to repair when it breaks and dispose of later as a result of an emotional bond with it. Such bond is strengthened when we invest time and effort customising. Consumer involvement when customising is facilitated by new technologies in design and manufacturing. For example, computer algorithms can automate customisation, meaning products are customised for consumers rather than by consumers, (namely individualisation). However, the adequate ‘amount’ of consumer interaction is still debated among researchers. This paper questions the consumer benefit and extent of an emotional bond with individualised products. Using a mixed-method approach, 63 participants responded to in-depth interviews while engaging with individualisation exercises. Respondents were profiled as either of two types of consumers depending on their interest in art, design and critical engagement with what they consume, namely Active Consumers (AC) and Passive Consumers (PC). Results suggest individualisation attracts PCs, showing signs of greater engagement in the process and attachment to the product than ACs. PCs welcomed the automated decisions taken by an individualisation toolkit, whilst ACs found it detrimental to the experience. It is claimed that individualisation can strengthen emotional bonds between PCs and the resulting products. The paper concludes that individualisation could offer PCs new experiences, enriching their lives, generating an emotional attachment leading to longer product lifetimes, and potentially changing consuming behaviours otherwise unlikely to be nurtured.

Exploration of the ways of empowering people in the design process through product personalization for prolonged product lifetimes 
Ozan E.(a)(b) and Doğan Ç.(b)(c) [a) Yaşar University, İzmir, Turkey; b) Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey; c) Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada]

Product personalization has many potentials in extending product lifetimes and sustainable consumption, through strengthening the emotional bond between people and their products. In addition, production and post-use of products need to be considered in the design process to develop design solutions in line with sustainability principles. Product personalization is defined in the study as, a process during which a product’s aesthetic and functional attributes are defined, adapted or modified by the user during design, use and post-use stages of the product lifespan. To increase a product’s personal relevance to its user, during the process of personalization, user is involved as co-designer and co-maker of the product. In this study, product personalization is discussed within the local context via empowering local skills and knowledge and enabling the use of local materials and production techniques. The ways of enabling people in the design process through product personalization are explored via research through design approach. Firstly, a lighting design exploration is developed based on the design considerations emerge from the personalization and sustainability literature, and an online survey exploring people’s reasons and methods of personalization. This design exploration is further developed through three generative sessions during which the participants personalize the design exploration, record and share their experiences in the personalization process, and thus theoretical ideas are refined. The results of the study reveal that, people’s needs for personalization, their skills and motivation levels and ease of re-personalization during use phase need to be considered during design process, and these design considerations are interrelated.

Session 1.2 Product lifetime optimization
Chair: Ruud Balkenende

Considering optimal lifetimes for LED lamps: A mixed approach and policy implications
Jessika Luth Richtera); Carl Dalhammar(a), Leena Tähkämö(b) [a) International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; b) Lighting Unit, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland]

Ecodesign policy for energy-using products so far has tended to focus on the energy efficiency requirements, but there is increasing interest in durability requirements as well. This exploratory study analyses whether and when long lifetimes are preferable when considering the trade-offs between durability and other important parameters such as costs and environmental impacts, examining the case of LED lamps. This is an interesting product group to examine because of the improving lumen efficiency of the technology as well as the increasing emphasis on lifetimes by both producers and policymakers. This research integrates both economic and environmental approaches to examine optimal lifetimes in the case of LED lamps. The first part of the research utilised an optimised least lifecycle cost (LCC) model of LED household lamps for sale in a Swedish online market, finding that optimal lifetimes were in the range of 25000-30000 hours for these lamps. However, this modelling did not consider dynamic factors such as changing prices and efficiencies. This study took the case of 800 lumen lamps to consider these factors, utilising both LCC scenarios, varying lifetime, purchase prices, energy cost and efficiency as well as LCA scenarios, varying electricity mix and lifetimes. The mixed approach demonstrates that different conclusions can be reached depending on the approach and the assumptions used. The merits and possible future improvements of these approaches for approximating optimal lifetimes of LED lamps are discussed based on preliminary findings. Lastly, the implications of the findings for further development of durability requirements and other policies are briefly discussed.

Measuring the historical change in the actual lifetimes of consumer durables
Oguchi M.(a) and Daigo I.(b) [a) National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan; b) The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan]

Product lifetime extension would contribute to establishing a circular economy and reducing the environmental impacts of mass consumption. Showing the situation of the historical change in the product lifetimes with quantitative data is needed for evaluating the contribution of product lifetime extension. The present study observed the historical change in the actual lifetimes of consumer durables in Japan by three different ways; direct observation; model calculation; simple indicator calculation. The average lifetimes of common consumer durables including home appliances, electronics, and passenger cars have been increasing in Japan over the past few decades. To evaluate the trend of the product lifetimes accurately, product lifetimes need to be observed or estimated based on actual data of discarded, collected, or in-use products. A questionnaire survey that relies on respondents’ memory would not provide precise results enough to detect the historical change in the actual product lifetimes. Calculating the ratio of the number of in-use products against the sales would generally be useful to understand the common trend in the product lifetimes over the years when the penetration of the products is saturated. The ratio could also be used as substitutes of the average of the lifetime distribution that is approximated by a statistical distribution function.

Promoting circular innovation through innovation networks: The case of cradle to cradle certified products Schmitt J. and Hansen E.G. [Johannes Kepler University (JKU), Institute for Integrated Quality Design (IQD), Linz, Austria]

With the advancement of sustainability-oriented innovation, circular innovation addresses not only the lacking environmental challenge integration but adopts a life cycle perspective. As a product design concept for the circular economy, Cradle to Cradle promotes closed biological and technical loops. We make use of the promotor network theory for understanding how companies collaborate in an innovation network for overcoming innovation barriers and successfully developing circular products. By conducting a longitudinal in-depth case study on a cradle-to-cradle pioneer company in the consumables industry, we find that cradle-to-cradle innovators collaborate tightly on the company, supplier and linking levels. Furthermore, these companies are characterized by excellent communication structures between the various promoters in the innovation network.

Session 1.3 Consumer and cultural perspectives
Chair :Jan Schoormans

Design for sharing: Libraries of things as a product-service system
Najine Ameli [Bochum University of Applied Sciences]

Sharing can be a way to confront ecological and social challenges. Libraries of Things offer the process of sharing in a convenient way that fits into the users’ everyday life. These Libraries offer access to a broad range of items to everyone at a low price. The items offered should be of high quality to minimize risks, to enhance the flow of the sharing process and to create as little maintenance effort and cost as possible for the library. The contradiction of offering high quality products for a relatively low price could be solved by a cooperation between manufacturers using Libraries of Things as a distribution platform. The Libraries could thus help the manufacturers to adapt their business to the circular economy. This paper does not present a ready-made solution yet, but rather reflects upon the role of design within this area of product-service system and defines further fields of research since Lending Libraries have not yet been reflected upon from a design-angle.

Is ownership the issue? The role of responsibility in determining public acceptance of product-services systems Cherry C.E. and Pidgeon N.F.[Cardiff University]

Product-service systems (PSS) have been proposed as one approach towards increasing product longevity and achieving a more sustainable, low-carbon economy. Encompassing a range of different strategies – including extended producer responsibility, repair and remanufacturing, product renting and sharing schemes, and pay-per-use services – PSS often include a shift to access-based consumption, where the product is no longer owned by the consumer. We propose that the shift in ownership, and thus the location of responsibility for products, may play a role in public acceptance of these schemes. We conducted a series of four two-day workshops with members of the public (n=51), to explore this issue, using deliberative techniques to explore public perceptions of product-service systems. Two scenarios and materials were presented, describing different forms of PSS with different arrangements for ownership and responsibility for products. Overall, we found that while participants were not explicitly concerned with the lack of ownership of products under these schemes, the redistribution of responsibility that accompanied this was a serious concern. This was often rooted in a lack of trust in businesses, as well as other consumers, and led to a range of conditions being placed on participation in PSS. As such, the successful introduction of product-service systems will only be possible if careful consideration is given, not only to price and affordability, but also to deeply held values pertaining to trust and responsibility.

Room for change: Impact of building-level innovations to facilitate product reuse among residents
Ordóñez I., Hagy S., Bard F., Wahlgren L. and Ringstrand B.[Chalmers University of Technology]

This article explores the importance of building spaces in residential areas to encourage waste prevention through product reuse. First, a short review is made over five existing spaces that allow residents to leave and take products to be used again by others. Then, the initial experiences of establishing such a space in the HSB Living Lab in Gothenburg are presented to complement the review. In general, the experiences of establishing these rooms for change are positive, with users making use of the space frequently. Aspects such as location and open hours are crucial to make the change-stations convenient for residents to use. Making the space available to a large group of people is important to ensure good product flow and renewal. Even though these spaces enable product exchange between users, it is not always possible to link this exchange to a measurable effect on reduced waste generation or consumption. It is not always true that the items exchanged would have been discarded or purchased if the space to change them was not available. There is an exception when the exchanged items are food, since the food made available for others to take would have been wasted otherwise.

Session 1.4 Business opportunities
Chair: Nancy Bocken

Circular business model framework: Mapping value creation architectures along the product lifecycle
Nussholz, J.[Lund University]

Circular business models are foreseen to contribute to enabling prolonged lifetimes of products and components through successive cycles of reuse, repair, remanufacturing and closing material loops. To realize economic viability and resource efficiency savings from a circular business model, early consideration and integrated planning of the product lifecycle and value creation architectures at the relevant points in the lifecycle is pivotal. However, the current frameworks for business model design have not been designed to recognize the specific opportunity points of the product lifecycle to create and capture additional value from cycling resources. They do not acknowledge that it often takes distinct value creation architectures and value propositions to capitalize on the value creation potential. To attend to this gap, this paper develops a circular business model framework that is based on the current understanding of resource efficiency strategies and systematically integrates lifecycle value management with traditional business model design thinking. Through this, the developed framework is intended to serve as guidance for circular business model development to incorporate circular principles and to capitalize on additional value from cycling resources. To explore the usefulness of the framework developed from literature, a comparative case study design with two cases of Swedish companies operating circular business models is employed. The framework proved useful to map the companies’ distinct value creation architectures that enable cycling of resources and to point to opportunity spaces for additional value creation. Suggestions for further refinement are made.

Circular added value: Business model design in the circular economy
Hofmann F.(a), Marwede M.(a,b), Nissen, N. F.(a), and Lang, K. D.(a,b) [a) Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration IZM; b) Technische Universität Berlin]

The current linear production and consumption structures, which build upon the intensive use of natural resources and cheap energy, are crucial drivers for the rapid economic development in the last sixty years. Biodiversity loss, climate change, conversion of the planet earth´s surface and resource depletion force researchers, policy-makers, business representatives, and consumers to think about alternative economic approaches and lifestyles. The circular economy concept has recently attracted increased attention from academic, political, and economic institutions. The transformation to an economy characterized by cyclical and cascading usage of natural and physical capital requires disruptive and systemic innovations. On business level integrated strategies consisting of sufficiency, consistency, and efficiency factors are needed to implement the idea of circularity in the architecture of enterprises. Business developers have to restructure value creation processes, dematerialize value propositions, rethink and demerge global supply chains or consider ecological and social aspects in their cost-benefit analyses. Currently, the most business modeling tools and methods do not consider characteristics that are crucial for designing circular business models. This study is built upon a five-step systematic literature review methodology, which focused on circular economy, conventional as well as circular business model literature. The insights gained from the extensive literature analyses were used to redefine the logic, composition, elements, and potential element attributes of the Business Model Canvas in the context of circular economy.

Classifying circular business models: A practice-based review.
Whalen K.[Lund University]

Business models have a crucial role to play in the transition to a circular economy. Circular business model innovation provides an arena for studying the creation of such circular business models and enables companies the possibility to identify new value creation opportunities, such as capitalizing on embedded value of products over multiple lifecycles. In comparison with the trajectory of traditional business model innovation literature, circular business model innovation is underdeveloped, and this paper aims to make a contribution to the ongoing theoretical discussion. Through review and categorization of 140 circular business model case examples, this paper makes a first attempt to verify previous literature and unify academic and industry understanding of circular business models. The findings are expected to be useful in advancing the field of circular business model innovation and assisting practitioners in the design and development of new circular business models. While the results suggest convergence around three circular business model types: ‘Access/Performance Model’, ‘Extending Product Value’, and ‘Extending Resource Value’, other previously identified circular business model types should not be discounted.

Session 2.1 Design for product longevity
Chair: Alan Manley

Understanding material change: Design for appropriate product lifetimes
Bridgens B.(a) and Lilley D.(b)[a) Newcastle University; b) Loughborough University]

From the moment of purchase, pristine objects are subjected to an array of stimuli including wear, impact, heat, light, water and air which alter their tactile and aesthetic properties. Material change is often regarded as ‘damage’ or ‘degradation’, but has potential to be used as a tool to engender emotional engagement to an object and extend product lifetimes. The potential benefits, and complications, associated with material change in the context of designing for the circular economy and other sustainable product service systems is discussed. We present a framework for designers to better understand how materials change with use, and in turn how people respond to materials as they change. Key challenges are identified which must be overcome to use this framework in design practice: people’s physical interaction with objects is poorly understood, it is difficult to simulate material change, materials resources for designers do not provide information about material change, and people’s responses to aged materials depend on a complex web of interacting factors.

Transforming and prolonging design lifespans: Design education cases for sustainability.
Doğan Ç.(a)(b) [a) Carleton University b) Middle East Technical University]

This paper aims to present an approach focusing on design education for sustainability through providing two exemplary cases from third-year industrial design projects. The main themes explored in these projects involve personalization via design transformation, adaption and upgrading during design, use and post-use phases. The first project developed and facilitated at Carleton University, the School of Industrial Design mainly addresses the key theme of transformation of LED lighting from indoors to outdoors during use phase for the adaptation of design solutions for diverse tasks (e.g. mood to therapy lighting, task to outdoor lighting etc.). Second educational project developed and facilitated at METU Department of Industrial Design aims to develop design solutions for open kitchen platform enabling transformation and upgrading during design, use and post-use phases. For each case, users are considered as active participants in the design process. The first project was undertaken individually whereas for the second one, the design students worked in teams due to the complexity of the project scope and objectives. This paper outlines the main intentions, phases and outcomes of these educational projects through providing insights and suggestions from design educators’ perspective. The illustrative student projects demonstrate some of the key principles and considerations being aimed throughout the phases of the projects. This paper also provides some future directions that can be implemented in further researches and educational projects.

Session 2.2 Circular economy and Policy
Chair: David Peck

Slow fashion in retail environments: Why storytelling is critical for product longevity.
Matheny R.and Hernández A.[The Ohio State University]

This paper presents a series of case studies examining selected slow fashion retailers’ use of storytelling elements within their respective store environments to communicate their brand’s sustainable process and mission. The term slow fashion, coined by Kate Fletcher, informs and encourages conscious consumers on responsible product sourcing and manufacturing, allowing them to feel connected to their local and global community. For slow fashion brands, fostering a strong and nurturing relationship between consumer and producer is invaluable, however few of these retailers capture that goal within their retail experience. Striving to educate and entice consumers towards more sustainable consumption, this paper presents case studies examining how storytelling elements are utilized within the retail environment to forge the consumer-producer connection.

Currently, many slow fashion retail environments lack storytelling elements, varying little from fast fashion stores. When the retail story and experience is not differentiated from those promoting mass consumption, products hold little emotional value and are disposable. This paper describes how three North American slow fashion brands (Shinola Detroit, Levi’s, and The Local by Lululemon) implemented storytelling within their store, educating consumers towards shifting their behaviors. Understanding the emotional connection between storytelling components and products reinforces slow fashion’s goal by elevating products from disposable to cherished artifact. Through this analysis, designers and retailers will be provided with tools to better educate their consumers and promote a slower consumption lifestyle.

Pilling in knitwear: A clothing longevity problem beyond design
Claxton, S.(a), Cooper, T. (a), Goworek, H. (b), Hill, H.(a), McLaren, A.(a) and Oxborrow, L.(a) [a) Nottingham Trent University; b) University of Leicester]

The environmental impact of clothing could be reduced by extending garment lifetimes, and many clothing retailers are now exploring design for longevity as a sustainable approach. In order for products to meet durable design standards consistently, global supply chain processes must be managed and controlled to avoid quality problems and early product failure. This paper uses a single case study to explore the challenges of meeting specified durable product standards in production by tracing and observing the identification and resolution of a quality issue affecting the durability of luxury knitwear. The research demonstrates that new tests and processes could enable durable products to be produced more consistently, but also identifies the obstacles and limitations to implementing these enhanced procedures. The paper proposes that effective production management of durable clothing may be more difficult within global supply chains where differences in business culture, operational practice and knowledge exist between companies. Supply chain models that emphasise shared values, knowledge and information exchange, trust and collaboration are considered as the most effective in delivering sustainable products. It concludes by identifying a range of conflicting priorities between commercial and sustainable practices that must be addressed to achieve consistency in durable clothing production, and makes recommendations for industry and future research.

Session 2.3 Consumer and cultural perspectives
Chair: Tim Cooper

Throwaway culture as a status symbol with fashion in India
Vibhavari Kumar [NIFT, India]

India is a country with people of different cultural background and community. Clothing is treated differently in India. Owing to the significant social meaning held by textiles, clothing used to be rarely discarded. Instead, it used to be frequently recycled for both the domestic and global markets. But with influx of global brands with affordable, machine-made, synthetic clothing and an excess disposable income, buying in excess has become accessible to all.
The research is aimed at establishing an understanding of how consumers dispose of fashion products and how to increase sustainable consumption. In addition to this, two aspects will be analysed:
a. The youth have learnt from society to ignore the value of goods once used, and hence do not possess respect for these products.
b. The people who manage to repair and not replace the product will be treated as misers and financially paralyzed, as new products are equated with status symbols.
This research examines the effects of overconsumption of clothing in India and understanding the growth of the fast fashion industry. It is also aimed at establishing an understanding of how consumers dispose fashion products and what their level of awareness about sustainability is. Research has identified the influences in increased purchase behaviour and the tendency to keep clothing for a shorter time. This is an ongoing research trying to explore and understand the current status of throwaway culture wi4h the youth in India and to propose sustainable solutions.

Ever-faster, ever-shorter? Replacement cycles of durable goods in historical perspective  Wieser H. [Sustainable Consumption Institute and Manchester Institute of Innovation Research]

Predicted by popular theories of acceleration, such as the theory of planned obsolescence and the rise of a throwaway society, the ever-faster replacement of durable goods is widely assumed in the literature. This paper confronts this assumption with long-term empirical evidence from three distinct cases – wheat seeds, automobiles, and mobile phones. The cases show that there is no dominant logic or force underlying historical changes in product durability, lifespans, and replacement cycles. Neither are such changes entirely unpredictable: There are clear patterns where these phenomena go up or down for sustained periods of time. The observed patterns in replacement cycles call for an empirically grounded theory that can explain both periods of acceleration and deceleration and connect durable goods replacement decision-making with developments at the aggregate level.

2.4 Business opportunities
Chair: Paul Nieuwenhuis

Sustainable business model experimentation practices: Evidence from three start-ups
Schuit C.S.C(a) , Baldassarre, B.(b) and Bocken, N.(c) [a) Innoboost; b) THANKS, Amsterdam; c) Delft University of Technology]

With a growing world population, resource use, and the effects of climate change, it is apparent that our current ‘take-make-dispose’ economy cannot be sustained. Sustainable business model innovation integrates sustainability objectives into business models to achieve a positive impact on society and/or the environment in combination with pursuing profit. Experimentation capabilities are essential for implementation, but established companies struggle with execution. Start-ups are more acquainted with a trial and error approach in which assumptions are gradually validated or adapted to market needs. To contribute to the shift towards sustainable business models, this paper explores how start-ups develop sustainable business model experiments and which elements of the sustainable business model canvas are tested through experimentation. Three start-ups were followed in their experimentation journey to develop profitable sustainable business models. Results indicate that 1) experiments always concerned the value proposition and another building block of the business model with a high-risk profile 2) start-ups use easy accessible resources to execute experiments in a fast paced and iterative manner 3) decisions of continuation of business model ideas were based on the outcomes of experiments in relation to the purpose of the company. In addition, this paper provides examples of experimentation practices of these start-ups to give hands-on examples how sustainable business model experimentation can be developed. 

Challenges and support for scaling up upcycling businesses in the UK: Insights from small-business entrepreneurs
;Sung K., Cooper T., Ramanathan U. and Singh J.[Nottingham Trent University]

Upcycling is the creation or modification of a product from used materials, components and products which is of equal or higher quality or value than the compositional elements. Within the context of increased product longevity, it enables a reduction in the use of raw materials by extending the lifetime of used materials, components and products, thereby increasing material efficiency and reducing industrial energy consumption. If scaled up to a considerable level through appropriate interventions, upcycling could, in theory, contribute significantly to preventing environmental harm. In particular, upcycling-based businesses have been identified as one of sustainable alternatives to prevailing business models that are based on unrestrained access to virgin materials, in contrast with the circular economy. Previous research regarding upcycling has focused mostly on fashion and textiles and highlighted the potential of upcycling businesses, providing sector-specific suggestions for expansion beyond their currently niche status. There is a critical knowledge gap concerning ways of achieving the full potential of upcycling-based businesses across the whole economy. This paper therefore provides results from a study on the challenges that upcycling entrepreneurs face when attempting to scale up and how to overcome them, based on an exploratory workshop with 12 British upcycling entrepreneurs. It identifies the key challenges faced by upcycling businesses and presents a mapping of the systemic support required for overcoming them, with potential actors.


W1. Working with two theoretical perspectives from consumer studies to research circular business models and product service systems
Maurizio Catulli(a,b), Matthew Cook(a) and Stephen Potter(a) [a) The Open University; b) University of Hertfordshire] (IDE Arena)

This workshop is aimed at researchers interested in circular business models, particularly Product Service Systems (PSS) consumption. The workshop addresses the challenges of researching consumer relationships with PSS using different approaches from consumer studies: consumer culture theory and practice theory. Researchers will be interested and able to contribute if they are interested in PSS consumption (in the context of circular economies) and in the challenges of operationalising research perspectives in either a pluralistic or integrated fashion.

W2. Options for lifetime labeling: Design, scope and consumer interfaces
Carl Dalhammar and Jessika Luth Richter [Lund University]

Labeling Lifetime But How? There is agreement among many EU member states that consumers should have access to information about the product’s lifetime at the time of purchase. However, designing such an information scheme will be very difficult in practice. In this session, we will outline and discuss the main issues and ask for your input on how to resolve them. Welcome!

W3. Electronic textiles and product lifetimes: how can multi-disciplinary design strategies for product longevity be placed at the heart of the wearables industry?
Angharad McLaren(a), Dorothy Hardy and Ana Mestre [Nottingham Trent University]

Can smarte-textiles be sustainable? This workshop will includeinsights from theteardown of a smart garment, giving the opportunity to find out what is inside an e-textile anddiscuss the products that are being developed as part of this booming market. The discrepancies in lifetimes of textiles, electronics and other components will be exploredwith an expert panel, along with discussion of methods of extending product lifetimes, recycling and disposing of smart fabrics.

W4. Engaging consumers in product lifetime extension
Bettina Heller [UN Environment] and Ian Fenn [Consumers International]

Debate is on the rise around the durability of certain products, and concerns about a growing ‘throwaway’ culture in many societies around the globe. At the same time, new consumption trends and models, such as product repair portals or collaborative consumption, offer potential for sustainability and consumer empowerment. Exploring behavioral insights, this session will discuss how to engage consumers in product lifetime extension, with a view to showcase good practices for replication and potentially pursue new ideas in the framework of the 10YFP Consumer Information Programme.

W5. Exploring cherishability as a future model: Exploring textile materials, hand skills and personal response
Shirley Mclauchlan [Edinburgh University]

A practical workshop exploring and experiencing how materials and technique influence our personal response to what we cherish.An opportunity to explore theory via hand skills creating some valuable evidence. This workshop is an opportunity to ‘play’ with textile materials.